The Graduate Center - City University of New York

Public Sculpture

Cynthia Mills (1947-2014), former executive editor of American Art at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, traces the arc of Civil War commemorative public sculpture, describes the similarities and differences between northern and southern monuments, and discusses their continued uses and controversies. This talk took place on July 19, 2012, as part of The Visual Culture of the American Civil War, an NEH Summer Institute for College and University Teachers.



Brown, Thomas J. The Public Art of Civil War Commemoration: A Brief History with Documents. Boston, 2004.

Savage, Kirk. Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in Nineteenth-Century America. Princeton, 1997.

Savage, Kirk. “History, Memory, and Monuments: An Overview of the Scholarly Literature on Commemoration.”
National Park Service History E-Library. 2006.

Mills, Cynthia, and Simpson, Pamela H. eds. Monuments to the Lost Cause: Women, Art, and the Landscapes of Southern Memory. Knoxville, 2003.


Florida Public Archaeology Network – Destination: Civil War (Florida Public Archaeology Network)

History of the Civil War Battle of Gettysburg (Stone Sentinels, Steve Hawk)

North Carolina Civil War Monuments (North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources)

Permanent Art and Monuments: NYC Parks (The City of New York)